The iTunes not syncing with your podcasts, its most likely setting an issue in your iTunes, by default iTunes won’t sync podcasts out of the box. Follow some simple steps below to fix
Open up iTunes and plug in your iPod touch.
Click on your account name in iTunes.
You will see a number of different tabs here, click on the Podcast tab. Click on the box next to “Sync” to check mark it. A dialog box will appear asking “Are you sure you want to sync podcasts, blah blah blah.”, click the “Sync Podcasts” button. You have a whole whack of different choices on how many podcast you want to sync from the drop down menu. You can even pick and choose specific podcast to sync up as well.
When finished press the “Sync” button on the bottom and your podcasts in iTunes should now be in sync and in perfect harmony with your iPod touch.